3) Kalam Cosmological Argument
Analytic philosopher William Lane Craig holds two doctoral degrees and is a formidable and practiced debater. He has faced down some of the most vitriolic and vehement opponents of theism on the debate stage — including famous atheists like Christopher Hitchens, Sam Harris, and Lawrence Krauss.
Dr. Craig is famous for his work on the cosmological argument; particularly a form of it he attributes to the Kalam school of early Islamic scholarship. Here is his formulation:
Everything that begins to exist has a cause.
The universe began to exist.
Therefore, the universe has a cause.
The cause, says Dr Craig, cannot be part of the universe itself. It must be causeless, spaceless, timeless, immaterial, and immensely powerful. What possible candidates do we know of that could satisfy these requirements? “A mind,” he says. The greatest mind. God.